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Publication: Arabinogalactan protein-rare earth element complexes activate plant endocytosis

Prof. Xiaohua Huang published his research papers in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (201907,116(28),14349-14357)


Endocytosis is essential to all eukaryotes, but how cargoes are selected for internalization remains poorly characterized. Extracellular cargoes are thought to be selected by transmembrane receptors that bind intracellular adaptors proteins to initiate endocytosis. Here, we report a mechanism for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of extracellular lanthanum [La(III)] cargoes, which requires extracellular arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that are anchored on the outer face of the plasma membrane. AGPs were colocalized with La(III) on the cell surface and in La(III)induced endocytic vesicles in Arabidopsis leaf cells. Superresolution imaging showed that La(III) triggered AGP movement across the plasma membrane. AGPs were then colocalized and physically associated with the it subunit of the intracellular adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complexes. The AGP-AP2 interaction was independent of CME, whereas AGP's internalization required CME and AP2. Moreover, we show that AGP-dependent endocytosis in the presence of La(III) also occurred in human cells. These findings indicate that extracellular AGPs act as conserved CME cargo receptors, thus challenging the current paradigm about endocytosis of extracellular cargoes.