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English Introduction to 10 Representative Works in Recent 5 Years(2011-2015)

Title Author Journal Abstract
10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces Heroin cue craving in long-term addicts Ti-Fei Yuan Biological Psychiatry, 2016(in press)  (SCI, IF=10.225) Opiate drug (e.g. Heroin) addiction represents one major health concern in Asia. Despite availability of different rehabilitation approaches for heroin addicts, the addicted subjects exhibit high levels of cue induced craving and relapse.
Local proliferation is the main source of rod microglia after optic nerve transection Ti-Fei Yuan Scientific Report, 2015(5)  (SCI, IF=5.1) Microglia are the resident phagocytic cells with various functions in the central nervous system, and the morphologies of microglia imply the different stages and functions. In optical nerve transection (ONT) model in the retina, the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) induces microglial activations to a unique morphology termed “rod” microglia. A few studies described the “rod” microglia in the cortex and retina; however, the function and origin of “rod” microglia are largely unknown. In the present study, we firstly studied the temporal appearance of “rod” microglia after ONT, and found the “rod” microglia emerge at approximately 7 days after ONT and peak during 14 to 21 days. Interestingly, the number of “rod” microglia remarkably decay after 6 weeks. Secondly, the “rod” microglia eliminate the degenerating RGC debris by phagocytosis. Moreover, we found the major source of “rod” microgliosis is local proliferation rather than the infiltration of peripheral monocytes/hematopoietic stem cells. We for the first time described the appearance of “rod” retinal microglia following optic nerve transection.
The Effects of Stress on Glutamatergic Transmission in the Brain Ti-Fei Yuan Molecular Neurobiology, 2015(51) (SCI, IF=5.286) Stress leads to detrimental effects on brain functions and results in various diseases. Recent studies highlight the involvement of glutamatergic transmission in pathogenesis of depressive behaviors and fears. Acute stress generates different impacts on the excitatory transmission compared to chronic stress. Different neuromodulators and epigenetic factors also participate in the alteration of synaptic transmission and the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Restoration of the glutamatergic transmission in stress-affected brain areas therefore provides novel directions of therapeutic interventions against stress.
Do processing speed and short-term storage exhaust the relation between working memory capacity and intelligence? Chang Liu Personality and Individual Differencess, 2015(74) (SSCI, IF=1.95)  The roles of processing speed (PS) and short-term storage (STM) for explaining the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and intelligence are analyzed at the latent variable level. 253 Chinese college students completed thirty-two measures from different content domains tapping the cognitive constructs of interest. The key findings showed that (a) PS accounts for the relationship between WMC and fluid intelligence, (b) STM and PS are required for explaining the correlation between crystallized intelligence and WMC. Therefore, this study provides support for the view that PS underlies the correlation between WMC and intelligence, yet with the nuance that its relevance decreases when cognitive tasks rely on crystallized knowledge and skill.
Altered cortical and subcortical local coherence in PTSD: evidence from resting-state fMRI Yuan Zhong Acta Radiologica, 2015(6) (SCI, IF=1.35) Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often characterized by region-specific brain activation/deactivation and functional abnormalities in corticolimbic circuitry, as elucidated by task-dependent functional neuroimaging. However, little is known about the abnormalities in the local coherence of cortical and subcortical activity occurring during the resting state. Purpose: To evaluate the functional discrepancy of local coherence between cortical and subcortical regions in PTSD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Material and methods: Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) was performed on 14 outpatients with PTSD, along with 14 age- and sex-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement of the coherence of spontaneous RS-fMRI signal oscillations within spatially neighboring voxels, was examined. Results: Compared with the normal controls, PTSD patients showed increased local coherence in subcortical regions, including amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen, and decreased local coherence in cortical regions, including medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a correlation analysis of the ReHo measurement versus the severity of the disorder was performed, and highly positive correlation were observed in the right amygdala. Conclusion: The present study identified a functional discrepancy of local coherence between cortical and subcortical regions in PTSD patients compared with normal controls. The findings revealed that resting-state abnormalities might lead to further improvement of the understanding of the neural substrates of cognitive impairment and symptoms in PTSD.
The application of group forgiveness intervention for courtship-hurt college students: A Chinese perspective Hong Fu International journal of group psychotherapy, 2013(3) (SSCI, IF=0.522) Forgiveness intervention has been shown to be effective in dealing with problems caused by interpersonal hurt. Problems caused by courtship hurt could also be resolved by this approach. This paper describes the theoretical foundations and application of a group forgiveness treatment program which reflected some elements of collectivist Chinese culture positivity for individuals hurt in romantic relationships. Thirty-one female students from a Chinese university were randomly assigned to three groups (forgiveness group, general group, and control group). They completed a Scale of Courtship Forgiveness, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Index of Well-Being & Index of General Affect at entry (baseline), at the end of treatment, and at a four-week follow-up. Compared with the control group, clients both from forgiveness and general groups showed significant improvement in anxiety, depression, and well-being at the end of treatment, but only the forgiveness group showed significant improvement in courtship forgiveness. Further, the effectiveness of treatment for the forgiveness group lasted longer than for the general group. The findings suggest that the forgiveness treatment can be beneficial for college students hurt in romantic relationship.
Mirror neuron system activation for conscious states assessment: For patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states Ben-Yu Guo Medical Hypotheses, 2013(1) (SCI, IF=3.534) Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents the direct pathway to consciousness. Measuring MNS activation provides an accurate and reliable assessment of conscious status in vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS) patients. It will be further interesting to design MNS activation-based procedure to “recall” the consciousness in such patients.
Processing Coordinate Structures in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements Qing-Rong Chen PLOS ONE, 2012(4)  (SCI, IF=3.534) This article reports the results of an eye-tracking experiment that investigated the processing of coordinate structures in Chinese sentence comprehension. The study tracked the eye movements of native Chinese readers as they read sentences consisting of two independent clauses connected by the word huo zhe. The data strongly confirmed readers' preference for an initial noun phrase (NP)-coordination parsing in Chinese coordination structure. When huo zhe was absent from the beginning of a sentence, we identified a cost associated with abandoning the NP-coordination analysis, which was evident with regard to the second NP when the coordination was unambiguous. Otherwise, this cost was evident with regard to the verb, the syntactically disambiguating region, when the coordination was ambiguous. However, the presence of a sentence initial huo zhe reduced reading times and regressions in the huo zhe NP and the verb regions. We believe that the word huo zhe at the beginning of a sentence helps the reader predict that the sentence contains a parallel structure. Before the corresponding phrases appear, the readers can use the word huo zhe and the language structure thereafter to predicatively construct the syntactic structure. Such predictive capability can eliminate the reader's preference for NP-coordination analysis. Implications for top-down parsing theory and models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed.
Unitary or non-unitary nature of working memory? Evidence from its relation to general fluid and crystallized intelligence Chang Liu Intelligence, 2012(40) (SSCI, IF=2.8)  This study explored the controversy surrounding working memory: whether it is a unitary  system providing general purpose resources or a more differentiated system with domain-specific sub-components. A total of 348 participants completed a set of 6 working memory tasks that systematically varied in storage target contents and type of information processing, as well as a set of 6 tests measuring general fluid intelligence and general crystallized intelligence. A structural equation modeling approach formalized and tested the theoretical expectations of the differentiation perspective on working memory. Visuo-spatial working memory was found to be more strongly correlated with general fluid intelligence than with general crystallized intelligence, and vice versa for verbal–numerical working memory. Additionally, general fluid intelligence was more strongly correlated with visuo-spatial working memory than with verbal–numerical working memory, and vice versa for general crystallized intelligence. These patterns of relationships supported the argument that working memory is not a simple unitary system, but can be differentiated in domain-specific components which are visuo-spatial working memory and verbal–numerical working memory.
Temperament, personality, and achievement goals among Chinese adolescent students Chen Chen Educational Psychology: An international journal of experimental educational psychology, 2011(3)  (SSCI, IF=1.021)  Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 2 × 2 framework could be generalised to the Chinese context. Six of the nine temperament dimensions (e.g. activity level – general, flexibility–rigidity, and task orientation) significantly predicted mastery‐approach, mastery‐avoidance, performance‐approach and performance‐avoidance goals. Neuroticism, extroversion and conscientiousness significantly predicted all the above‐mentioned four achievement goals; openness and agreeableness significantly predicted the mastery‐orientated and performance‐oriented achievement goals, respectively. Compared with temperament, personality was the stronger predictor for achievement goals. These results supported the posited relationship of ‘hard‐wiring’ variables to achievement goals in the conceptual model of achievement motivation.
Syntactic priming in Chinese sentence comprehension: Evidences from event-related potentials Qing-Rong Chen Brain and Cognition, 2013(83) (SSCI, IF=2.48 Using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, this study examined the nature of syntactic priming effects in Chinese. Participants were required to read prime-target sentence pairs each embedding an ambiguous relative clause (RC) containing either the same verb or a synonymous verb. In Chinese, the word de serves as a relative clause marker. During reading a potential Chinese RC structure (either the prime or the target sentence), Chinese readers initially expect to read an Subject–Verb–Object (SVO) structure but the encounter of a relative clause marker de would make readers abandon the initial strategy and reanalyze the structure as a relative clause. A reduced P600 effect was elicited by the critical word de in the target sentence containing the same initial verb as in the prime sentence. No significant reduction of the P600 was observed in the target sentences in the synonymous condition. The results demonstrated that verb repetition but not similarity in meaning produced a syntactic priming effect in Chinese. The constraint-based lexicalist hypothesis and the argument structure theory were adopted to explain the syntactic priming effect obtained in the current study.