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Review of the lecture┃The establishment and collapse of wuzhu coin system

At 2 p.m. on December 20, the subject of Chinese history of Nanjing Normal University invited Mr. Zhu Anxiang, associate professor of Hebei Normal University, to hold an academic lecture entitled "the establishment and collapse of the five baht money system" in conference room 213, building 400, Suiyuan campus. The lecture was presided over by Mr. Lu Shuai, School of social development, Nanjing Normal University. More than 30 undergraduate and postgraduate students from the school of social development attended the lecture.

Mr. Zhu first briefly introduced the use history of wuzhu coin in China, which is the legal tender with the longest circulation time in China's history. According to historical data, even after the issue of Kaiyuan Tongbao, there were still five baht coins in circulation until the Qing Dynasty. The use of ancient money today has always been a feature of the use of ancient Chinese coins. Zhu pointed out that the reason is that there is a basic relationship between copper money and copper price.

Before clarifying the establishment process of wuzhu money system, Mr. Zhu mentioned that we should first understand the end history of the half Liang money system. After the appearance of Qin banliang coin, it has been faced with two major problems: weight loss and steal casting, making it gradually nominal symbolization. In the Qin Dynasty, half Liang was 12 baht, and the contract is now 8 grams. However, in fact, half liang of money did not meet the standard of being as heavy as the text. The process of reducing the half Liang system in Qin Dynasty is not only the collapse process of the half Liang money system, but also the gradual formation process of the five baht money system. Zhu sorted it into eight baht coins in the second year of Gao's reign, four baht coins in the fifth year of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty, and three baht coins in the first year of Jianyuan. Finally, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty implemented the policy of accumulating wealth with virtual currency in the face of national financial deficit, which gradually led to the emergence of the five baht money system.

Mr. Zhu divided the process of establishing the system into three stages. In the first stage, in the fifth year of Yuanshou, Emperor Wu, "asked the prefectures to cast five baht coins", in fact, it was made by officials, governors and people. In the second stage, in the second year of Yuanding, Emperor Wu cast five baht of chize, one of which was used as five five baht of prefectures. In the third stage, in the fourth year of the Yuanding reign, Emperor Wu cast Sanguan wuzhu, and the wuzhu coin system was formally formed. Mr. Zhu summed up the process of the establishment of the five baht coin system as the way to reclaim the right to cast money by the central government, which is of great significance to the expansion of national financial revenue. In the process of explanation, Mr. Zhu showed a large number of archaeological pictures. Taking his own experience as an example, he presented the five baht coins in different periods in front of the students, so that they could intuitively feel the finalization process of ancient Chinese coins represented by the five baht coins.

However, like the half two coin system, the five baht coin system gradually collapsed with the development of history. Mr. Zhu mentioned that with the reform of Wang Mang's currency system and the long-term weight reduction of the currency in the Eastern Han Dynasty, people began to cut and chisel money. After Dong Zhuo's destruction, the wuzhu coin system was even more affected. In the subsequent history of the Three Kingdoms, only Cao Wei's monetary policy was still successful, but Shu Han and sun Wupin "cast large coins", and the five baht coin system was further damaged, and the face value of the coins far exceeded the weight of the coins. During the Southern Dynasties, the coins in the market were no longer used according to the face value. The Court played games with the folk, and the society appeared the duality of the Southern Dynasty currency, which accelerated the collapse of the five baht coin system. In the Northern Dynasty, the minting of wuzhu coins was rampant, and the coin system was also chaotic. Until the Northern Zhou Dynasty, there were no five baht coins on the coins, which opened the prelude to the emergence of Baowen coins. The five baht coin system finally collapsed. Although it was still used by the people, it was no longer legal tender.

In the question asking session, the students and Mr. Zhu had a heated discussion. From the use of Han wuzhu money in the western regions to the role of Song Mother money, the space-time was shining with sparks of thought. With his own experience, Mr. Zhu stressed that he should learn to explore the changes of social economy and politics from the development of coins. Finally, Mr. Lu Shuai summarized the lecture and expressed his heartfelt thanks to Mr. Zhu. The lecture was successfully concluded.

(Writing by: Xu Jiangping  Reviewed by: Lu Shuai))